Yellow Track (C-33): Infectious Disease and Water Quality (Afternoon)

- Session Description (click to collapse)

This session will focus on the effects of enhanced climate change on water supplies.  Throughout the world increased climatic variability has exacerbated floods and droughts.

All regions of the world show an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems. Areas in which runoff is projected to decline are likely to face a reduction in the value of the services provided by water resources. The beneficial impacts of increased annual runoff in other areas are likely to be tempered in some areas by negative effects of increased precipitation variability and seasonal runoff shifts on water supply, water quality and flood risks (IPCC, 2007).

The years 2004 and 2007 marked two of the earliest spring melts on record in the western US, and 2007 was one of the driest years on record in California. Glaciers are disappearing across the West, and Glacier National Park in Montana may have no glaciers by 2030. Warming temperatures and corresponding shifts from solid to liquid precipitation have profound implications for water supplies and management.

Recommended Resources

- Moderator (click to collapse)

Kellogg Schwab

Kellogg Schwab is a Professor in the Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Department of Environmental Health Sciences as well as Director of both The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Global Water Program (GWP) and the JHU Center for Water and Health. The GWP integrates Hopkins researchers from public health, engineering, behavior, policy, and economic disciplines to address the critical triangle of water, food, and energy with the goal of achieving sustainable, scalable solutions for disparate water needs both internationally and domestically.

Dr. Schwab’s research focuses on environmental microbiology and engineering with an emphasis on the fate and transport of pathogenic microorganisms in water, food, and the environment. His current research projects involve improving environmental detection methods for noroviruses. He is also investigating how important human pathogens are transported through environmental media (water, air, and food).


Dr. Schwab has developed and participated in multiple research projects designed to evaluate the public health impacts of improving water access and potable water quality and the effectiveness of point-of-use water treatment. Recent international work has focused on developing field-portable microbial and chemical laboratories that facilitate evidence-based assessments of the point-of-use and community-level water treatment systems providing potable water to individuals in low-income countries.


Ph.D., Public Health, University of North Carolina, 1995
M.S., Public Health, University of North Carolina, 1991
B.S., Biology, University of North Carolina, 1987

- Notes (click to collapse)

Infectious Disease and Water Quality (Kellogg Schwab, JHSPH)

Group Discussion:

Integrate different group’s opinions

Each small group would discuss and prioritize three types of problem and put forward the corresponding solution and funding source.




  1. Sanitation
  2. gray water 
  3. water treatment


  1. Collect gray water and reuse them after certain kind of treatment
  2. Send report on unsafe water locally via advanced technologies, test population perspective on whether the water is unsafe or not.


Dr. Schawab: who are we going to address?


  1. Global Water Ambassador Program - To invite and educate young leader for motivating public awareness in Global Warming

Face to face investigation



  1. Modeling and Ecosystem; population dynamics;

Dr. Schwab: Do we use different models simultaneously or combine them together?

Group Response: combine models in order to address different disciplines


for the public

  1. Detect trends of previous outbreaks
  2. Prevalence existing disease


  1. Efforts would be put on helping people from understanding problems.
  2. Expert would be invited by Government to address population and ecosystem dynamics.
  3. Direct people to understand the problem via governmental interference such as creating incentives to encourage certain kind of beneficial behavior.

Funding: Basically from government. Different disciplines have different requirements.  




  1. Uncertainty in water supply, such as pipe break issue
  2. Inability to optimize water resource
  3. Difficulty in identifying susceptible population


  1. Treat water, enhance security, construct infrastructure such as building solar power plants to treat water in a national level. But these solutions may not be able to address local susceptible population.
  2. Education for community policy maker to address key questions, define scale of the research, and prioritize the problem and flexibility to adjust for funding.
  3. look at fixed population, examine what kind of susceptibility problem we are facing Refocus funding.

Funding: Multilateral resources; Small business loans; create opportunities for business




  1. Overpopulation – induces vulnerabilities of the ecosystem, pressure upon resources, especially water resources; Besides, it would cause certain contagious disease to spread dramatically
  2. Disaster or emergency diseases
  3. Consumer behaviors – using Google search each time is equivalent to lighting a match. Trivial behavior would make a huge difference from long run perspective


  1. Education of the next generation. Promotion from a public health perspective;
  2. Certain kind of information would involve privacy rights. By establishing some organization similar to military health care institution, a better data set could be built for further investigation and reducing data gap.
  3. Governmental interference. Such as charging people for googling.

Funding: Government








Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.
group 4 by Christina.Pikas
group 1 by Christina.Pikas
group3 by Christina.Pikas
group 2 by Christina.Pikas
Santa Maria Volcano by Christina.Pikas